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The Independent: June 16th, 1896

6th June 2012


Continuing the weekly project of retyping Korea’s first English-language newspaper, this week’s issue is Vol.1, No. 31 from Tuesday, June 16, 1896. In this issue: The editor seems all over the place as he expresses his views on Japanese trade in Korea, Yang Ju is attacked and overwhelmed by 15 insurgents, and the Americans in Seoul start planning a Fourth of July forming committees. <<Reminder:  All opinions expressed in the newspaper are the views of the editors of The Independent. They do not reflect the opinions of this website and are reproduced here for the sole purpose of providing historical context. >>


It is fairly safe to say that the interest of Japan in Korea is largely a commercial one. She may have some sentimental ideas about the “debt of gratitude” which Korea owes her and her ambition may include Korea in her “sphere of influence” politically but, after all, the Japanese people as a whole are much more interested in the commercial aspect of the case than in the politcal.  Great as has been Japan’s advance politically her industrial progress has been greater still and the nations of the world see in Japan not so much a rival in the arts of war as a rival in the arts of peace. The Japanese do not appear to think so but as the prizes of war slip one by one through their fingers they will come to see that this is true, and act upon it.

Now notice that commerce is the most democratic thing in the world. The merchant would as lief sell his goods to a coolie as to a prince, to an idiot as well as to a scholar.  The supply adapts itself to the demand whoever it is that demands. The trader would rather have good will of themasses tan of the government unless the latter uses its power to curtail his business and the favor of government would be curred not for its own sake but to open up a way again to the masses.  What is the bulk of Korean imports? Cotton goods.  Who uses them? The common people. What forms the bulk of Korea’s exports? Rice, beans and hides.  Who raises them? The common people.

Ordinarily the common people think little about about government so long as things run smoothly. It’s like nerves.  You know nothing about them till they get out of order.  The common citizen is most interested in the man he sells his goods to and the man he buys from.  To his mind Government is made for evil doers, not for law abiding citizens and if he has a good market to buy and sell he is pretty well content.

That the Japanese have not grasped this fact is evident from the way Japanese merchants are treating the Korean people. A rather timid countryman, who is wholesomely afraid of the Japanese, comes into the Japanese settlement to look about and see the goods displayed. He has always been accoustomed to handle and examine goods before purchasing and he stops before an open shop window where the goods are all within reach of the hand and he picks up an article and looks at it.  Suddenly the proprietor rushes out at him, heaps abuse upon him, cuffs him perhaps, and tell shim he must pay for the thing now he has handled it. The poor fellow is frightened nearly to death and hands over the money exactly as he would hand it over to a highwayman who had a revolver at his head.  But you say these are rare cases. They are not. You can see such any day if you will stand a few minutes in the streets of the Japanese settlement. The tactics pursued in getting Korean’s houses away from them has been too well aired in our columns to need comment here. The following is a sample of Japanese business methods. Some months ago two Japanese laid before a wealthy Korean a scheme for making money.  The Korean was to supply capital, Japanese laborers were to be sent into the country to cut timber and from the proceeds both Koreans and Japanese were to make a handsome profit.  When the timber  was all cut and ready for market one of the Japanese suddenly left for Japan and the other one told the Koreans that as he was in partnership with the absent man he had no pwer to settle the matter till the other one came back, which of course he will not do; and the Korean has simply been done out of two or three thousand dollars.  Every time a Korean gets a bit in this way a hundred others hear of it and vow they will have nothing to do with the Japanese unless absolutely driven to it.  If this is the way the Japanese think to build up trade here they are a much shorter sighted people than we had supposed.

Brief Notice

The Governor of Kong Ju reports that the Police inspector of that province captured a band of robbers in Kong Ju and recovered a large quantity of stolen goods among which were sixty-nine rolls of linen belonging to some Chinese merchants, and these were returned to the owners.

The Governor of Seoul reports that a man named Cho In So calling himself a leader of the ‘righeous army’ arrived in Yang Ju Magistracy with fifteen followers and raised a disturbance.  The Magistrate has run away and the officials of the district are in hiding. The insurgents are having every thing their own way as thre is no resistance from any source.  They have killed three inoffensive citizens and are robbing every house in sight.

The Governor again reports that a company of Seoul troops were dispatched to Yang Ju and captured the band of insurgents but the leader got away.

The general subscription is being taken up in Japan among the foreign communities there for relief of sufferers in Armenia.  Korea cannot be left behind in such a praise-worthy effort and the Independent  takes pleasure in opening its column to forward such an enterprise. The project does not originate with us but has been suggested and as the Independent office iscentrally located we may without impinging upon any one else’s province offer to receive and forward any sums which the worthiness of the object may prompt the people of Seoul to give. Itwill go direct to the relief headquarters at Constantinople as Korea’s substantial evidence of sympathy.  The Independent takes pleasure in starting the subscription by putting down ten dollars which we wish might be ten thousand dollars. Will the Ladies and Gentlemen honor themselves by participating in this gift of Korea to suffering Armenia? Strict account will be kept and all sums will be published either under the donor’s name or anonymously if desired.

The students of Pai Chai School are looking well in the new caps and uniforms.  They seem to be proud of their new dress and all regret that they did not adopt it sooner. They are drilled by the Sergeant of the US Marines who kindly comes over to the”School grounds every afternoon to train them. Long Live Pai Chai < This may seem like a superfluous article however, the unwritten meaning is that the students are currently in violation of the Minister of Education’s order that students may not wear Western clothing in school. There will be consequences… tom>

At the meeting of American citizens held on Friday afternoon for the purpose of discussing the 4th of July, it was unanimously decided to celebrate the day in appropriate manner, and the following Committees were appointed. Committee on Programme, Philip Jaisohn, HG Appenzellar, Mrs Bunker.  Committee on Arrangements, HR Hulbert, DA Bunker, Eugene Bell.  Committee on Refreshments, Mrs MF Scrantan, Mrs HN Allen.  Committee on Invitation, HN Allen, JB Busteed.  Some contribution is necessary to defray the expenses of printing, refreshments, etc.  Every American is requested to forward his or her share to any members of Committe on Programme as the financial matter was deferred to this Committee. The Committee has recieved already contributions amounting to $30.

The report of the appointment of Herr Von Brandt as Advisor to the Chines Foreign Office is unfounded.

Dr and Mrs Underwood have returned from their trip to Chefoo.

Letter to the Editor

Dear Sir— I voice the sentitment of the law-abiding and patriotic citizens of Yang Ju and beg to say a few words to the public through your valuable paper in regard to the memorial and the order which the new Minister of Education, Mr Sin Ki Sun has written since his appointment to the office.  All of his sentiments expressed in these documents clearly indicate that he is in perfect accord with the so-called ‘righteous army’ now robbing and looting the peaceful and law-abiding citizens throughout the country. We, the patriotic citizens of Korea, have horror for these lawless gangs of the ‘righteous army’ and only pray and hope that the Government will soon crush thm out and make them obey the laws of the land.  But the new Minister of Education champions the cause of these robbers by saying that the use of Korean unmun by Korean people is a sign of ‘turning men into beasts;’ and the wearing of European costumes by the students of the Government schools is an indication of ‘making civilized men into barbarians.’  and adopting the Gregorian calendar in place of the Chinese is a step toward ‘becoming disloyal to the Chinese Emperor.’  These are exactly the sentiments this ‘righteous army’ entertain and champion at the present. If the Government entrusts such a high position as Minister of Educati0n to a  man who holds the same views as these enemies of the commonwealth, how can the peace loving citizens of theland hope to see the day when enlightment and progressiveness shall reign supreme over all Korea?  Yours faithfully, Chung To Sun, Yang Ju

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The Independent: June 13th, 1896

30th May 2012


Continuing the weekly project of retyping Korea’s first English-language newspaper, this week’s issue is Vol.1, No. 30 from Saturday, June 13, 1896. In this issue: The editor predicts the strong possibilty of food shortage in Seoul with the growing insurgency, the shamans figure out a successful ploy to slow down their persecution, and the insugents are in Suwon… less than a days march from Seoul. <<Reminder:  All opinions expressed in the newspaper are the views of the editors of The Independent. They do not reflect the opinions of this website and are reproduced here for the sole purpose of providing historical context. >>


It probably takes in the neighborhood of 3000 bags of rice a day to feed the people of Seoul and its suburbs. An inquisitive person might ask where the supply is kept and how it is doled out to the public.  A great part of it is kept in the towns near the city especially at and near the town of Ryong San <Now Yongsan, a district of Seoul.. the town was absorbed as Seoul grew..tom> These great granaries are kept supplied by junks from various parts of the coast, principally Kiung Sang and Chulla provinces, although more or less comes in from the immediately surrounding province.  Speaking in a general way, however, we may say that Kiung Ki province does the market gardening for the capital while the actual back bone of its appetite is broken by the produce of the fertile rice fields of the South.  Seoul would fare but poorly if cut off from this main source of supply.

The present actual supply now in the river granaries is sufficient to feed the people for the next two months. This being so the question arises, why has not the price risen more rapidly? On the answer to this question great interests hang. It can be answered in two ways; either because the present supply is so abundant and the promise of the coming crop so good that holders are willing to sell at fairly low prices rather than have a lot of old rice left on their hands or else it is because the fear of disturbance and consequent loss makes them wish to get rid of their stock as rapidly as possible and thus get their capital into a money form more easy of concealment.  If we analyze the first answer we shall find that it does not match the present conditions; for in the first place the present supply is not abundant.  It will be four months before the new crip is harvested and the present supply is good for only half that time.  In the second place the prospect of this supply being largely augmented is by no means good for we are informed, we hope falsely, that there is no rice in Kiung San province to send up here and the disturbed condition of affairs in Chulla province does not augur well for aid from that portion of the country.  Again the next condition is not met for the promise of the coming crop is anything but good.  The reasons are patent. The time for planting has come and there has not fallen a quarter of the rain that is necessary. In a vast number of districts so little security is felt that no attempt is being made to cultivate the fields. We are told that in some districts only two or three able bodied men are left, so many have wandered away with the insurgent element and so many have been killed.  Again last year was a bad one for cattle. Thousands died of the cattle plague last Autumn so that there is a very great scarcity in large portions of the country.  With these facts in hand who can conclude that prices are now low because of the prospect of a good crop?  We are forced to conclude that the other answer is the proper one and it is truly a gloomy outlook.  We are think it would be well for the government to look into the matter and ascertain the exact facts of the case and take steps for supplying the capital from outside sources if necessary. The work of the alarmist is a thankless one but we believe in looking facts squarely in the face and preparing for all contingencies.

Brief Notice

The Police Department has been suppressing devil worship in the city ad a large number of pictures of different deities have been destroyed by the police.  The benefit of such an order is simply enormous to the people at large.  But some of these Sorceresses or mutangs go around and circulate stories that they ahd protraits of former Kings in their temples and worshipped them together with evil spirits, but the police have dared to destroy such portraits therefore they ought to be punished. We are told eight or nine Police Officers and policemen have been dismissed and threatened with life imprisonment with hard labor or hanging.  We don’t believe such punishment will have a good effect on the discipline of the police nor on the community at large. These so-called portraits of former Kings are not real representations of these Royal personages but anybody can paint a human form and call it the representation of some Royalty of four or five hundred years ago. Supposing they are the portraits of such persons they have no business to place such august personages in the company of evil spirits. It is nothing but a scheme to evade the order of suppressing devil worship and to bring about a reaction in order to re-establish their temples of deception and fraud. It will teak a “wide-awake” and bold man to carry out the order successfully and see the scheme played to a finish by these devil worshippers.  WE have the deepest sympathy for those unfortunate policemen and their officers who performed their duties faithfully for the good of the service as well as the people, but instead of receiving a reward, severe punishment has ben their lot on account of the traps laid by the sorceresses.

Japanese Minister Mr. Komura has been appointed Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Mr. Hara, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs succeeded Mr. Komura as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Korea.

Baseball game this afternoon at 2 o’clock. Do not fail to be there.

Captain Sin Wo Kiun reports that the Magistrate of Su Won had run away from the Magistracy in fear of the insurgents. The captain entered Su Won and gathereed one hundred soldiers originally belonging to the district and kept them under his command. The district is comparatively quieter than ever before and insurgents can not be found anywhere in Su Won.

Of late, high Government Officials when passing through the street have been accompanied by eight or ten policemen. The people need the services of these policemen more than the officials do and we hope they will not be thus diverted from their legitimate duties.

Count Mutsu, the Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs has resigned and the Marquis Saionj has been appointed acting Minister.

Major General Katsura has bee appointed Governor General of Formosa to succeed Count Kaba-yama.

The HBM Man-of-War Pique leave Chemulpo today to join the British Squadron at Chefoo.

The fourth and fifth regiments have moved into the new barracks in front of the Palace, and they are drilled every day by Captain Ye Pyeng Mu.

Captain Whang Si Chung reports that Lieut. Kim Kui Sung and the Magistrate of Kwang Ju captured two Commanders and four of the rank and file of the insurgents in Kwang Ju district and shot them on the spot, also two leader of another band in Yang Keun were captured and received the same punishment.

Major Yi Choi Hyeng reports that the insurgents of Kyeng Sang province were driven out of the province by the Seoul troops, but the scattered remnants came over to Chung Chong province and looted the villages of Chung Ju district, and stopped the law-abiding citizens from agricultural work. The Major as dispatched 30 soldiers to the scene.

A letter from a friend in Pyeng Yang says on Sunday, the 31st of May, 13 men were received by baptism into the Presbyterian church at Pyeng Yang, and 40 persons partook together of the Lord’s Supper. A congregation of between three and four hundred was present, filling the church to overflowing. The enlargement of the room and curtaining off part of it for women forms a good sized house of worship.  The financial report for the past eight montsh showes offerings to the amount of $42.  This church came into existence since the war.

The Chinese residents on Kobe, Japan presented Mr. J.F. Connelly, the US Consul for that port, a handsome chased silver tea set in addition to a masive piece of silver plate and two large and beautifully made cups as a mark of their esteem  and gratitude for the invariable kindness and consideration they received from him while the Chinese had no consul of their own during the war.

A terrible catastrophe has occurred at Moscow during the holding of the people’s fete. The impatience of the crowd to reach the sheds from whence food and presents were being distributed, caused a crush in which over two thousand one hundred persons were trampled to death or seriously injured.

The Governor of In Chun reports that a man named Han Kyeng Rip of Pu Pyeng stole his uncles ox and sold it, then bound his uncle with rope and took him to a quiet ravine in the neighborhood and killed him. A few days later the crime was discovered and murderer was arrested immediately.

There are two street outside the South gate called Pul Mu Kol and Sun Chung Kol where all the “hoodlums” of the neighborhood congregate every afternoon and make trouble for the people who pass by. Country folks are their favorite prey. The police ought to put a stop to this is rowdysism.

Policeman Pak Kin Wan found on the street two dollars wrapped in a handkerchief.  He kept the money in the station and advertised in the neighborhood.  The owner put in appearance and recovered the money.

Latest Telegrams

(May 29) A fearfully destructive cyclone has swept over the city of St. Louis, MO. It is estimated that upwards of a hundred persons have been killed whilst thousands have been rendered homeless. The damage is set down at $25,000,000 and the disaster is described as the worst that has occurred in the United States since the Johnstown calamity. 

(May 27) A dispatch from Crete states that the Turkish soldiers in the town of Canae have massacred and pillaged Christians. A British ironclad has been ordered to the island, all the Consuls having cabled for warships.

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The Independent: June 11, 1896

24th May 2012


Continuing the weekly project of retyping Korea’s first English-language newspaper, this week’s issue is Vol.1, No. 29 from Thursday, June 11, 1896. In this issue: The editor continues to to criticize the Minister of Education who releases some new rules for the students of foreign languages. Meanwhile, the citizens of Yang Hwa Do prove to be a little fickle and the police hit a snag in their crackdown on the shamans. <<Reminder:  All opinions expressed in the newspaper are the views of the editors of The Independent. They do not reflect the opinions of this website and are reproduced here for the sole purpose of providing historical context. >>


From many quarters evidence has reached us that the recent memorial of the Minister of Education has awakened considerable feeling in native and foreign circles alike. In native circles it has met with a certain degree of sympathy, for whatever else may be said about it, it was at least an extreme expression of a feeling that undoubtedly exists in among the older members of the community. But its sweeping assertions, its blind antagonism to everthing like progress, its entire unreasonableness and its arrogance have gone far to defeat its object and expose its impracticability.  Among foreigners there appears to be but one sentiment, that of profound astonishment. They cannot understand how a “Minister of Education” could pen such an illogical, retrograde and altogether unwise document.  In their countries the Minister of Education is a man selected for his eminent possession of the qualities which are in this memorial most conspicuously absent.  He is a man thoroughly versed in the lore of the sages, in the deepest reverence but at the same time able to see that the times are changing, that new conditions have to be met with new appliances and new learning, and especially that other nations have something to teach which is well worth knowing.  Beyond everything else he is able to put the best interests and the highest well-being of his King and country far before his own personal feelings and prejudices. Such a man is therefore cautious but progressive. He does not accept everything that is suggested to him simply because it is new or because it is in use in other countries; neither does he reject anything simply because it was not known to Yun and Yu or because it is not found in the classics. His first thought is “Will this thing be of any real and permanent befefit to my King and country?” and his second thought is “How can I make this new thing most serviceable?”  The necessary result of the labors of such a wise and patriotic Minister is that the nations of the West are daily becoming wiser and richer and there appears to be no limit to their possible growth.

Now can it be said that the new Minister has shown himself wise or patriotic?  Is there a single word to show that hehasany sympathy with the people or any desire to do them good. Is there anything to show that he has respect or loyalty for His Majesty the King? Does not every word reveal an intense love of self, an inordinate belief in his own infallible wisdom and a daring and a rudeness towards His Majesty and His Majesty’s Ministers which is deserving of the severest reprobation?

Let it not be forgotten that the adoption of foreign clothes by the soldiers, police and Government students, and the cutting of the hair, was in loyal obedience to the command of His Majesty.  The Minister of Education, therefore, has openly expressed his contempt for His Majesty’s laws and by his ill-advised speech has incited others to sedition.  Is thisthe act of a loyal Minister?

But we have no wish to be unduly severe. The Minister is wrong; thoroughly, radically wrong, wrong from beginning to end, but we are willing to beleive that he drew up his memorial without due consideration– perhaps more at the instigation of foolish friends than at the suggestion of his own mind. At the same time it must not be forgotten that is offence has a most grave aspect. It is not only that he has rudely and inconsiderately assailed His Majesty’s edicts– edicts, which since their first issuance have been endorsed by His Majesty in the quietness, freedom and independence of the Russian Legation– not only that he has set an example of disrespect to His Majesty, but that he has incited to a course of delibrate bad faith and dishonesty. We are now thining of the bearing of his memorial upon his own Department.

When the schools recieve the permission of the Government to adopt a uniform it was upon the understanding that the scholars should provide it at their own expense. In reliance upon the good faith of the Government the students have have provided themselves with a neat and servicable uniform which was first submitted for and receivedthe approval of the Education Department. Sin Ki Sun now proposes to break up the agreement thus arrived at. Is he prepared to justify such a breach of food faith? And is he prepared to refund to the scholars the money so expended?

Without going further into the subject we would entreat the Minister to reconsider the position he has taken up. We assure him that no member of the Government has a better opportunity for serving his country than he has. The Education Department is the brightest hope for Korea. The Minister has it in his power to influence and mould the young minds of the country at the most suceptible period of their lives and through them to exert for all times a beneficial influence upon the nation at large.  Let him seek to direct their thoughts and studies into those courses which in China as in Korea are commending themselves to the wisest and most patriotic and most far-seeing minds, viz., the paths of well-considered progress in native and foreign learning.  Let him speak to the scholars the word of encouragement which can come from no lips with such weight as from his; let him cherish their esprit de corps; let him engender, stimulate and foster their love forking and country and his administration will be like therain of heaven. In his present attitude he is like a farmer who should refuse to dig and manure the ground or who lops off the yong ears of corn and rice, regardless of the misery and famine which must thereby ensue. But if he is wise and opens his eyes to the needs of of the times, encourages diligence fosters learning and rewards merit his name shall go down to posterity along with those of the wisest and greatest of the sages.

Brief Notice

The rain fall on the 7th was 1.1 inch by the gauge.

The mail carrier was robbed by the insurgents in Yun Pong district and lost sixty six letters and paper directed to Tai Ku and Tong Nai Magistracies.

A French new agency has received a communication from St. Petersburg, to the following effect– It has been rumored during the last few days that the the Ambassadors of Germany, England and the United States have protested to Prince Lobanof on the subject of the preponderate situation taken by Russia in Korea. In official circles it is mentioned that no protest of the kind has taken place. What is true is that Great Britain and the United States have asked in the most courteous manner for some light upon the Korean question. As to the German Government, it has made no overture of any kind; in fact, the German Minister has received instructions enjoining him to remain  absolutlely neutral in the matter. For the rest, it is affirmed in the same circle that the events in Korea inspire no disquietude and that negotiationswllcommence at once with Japan, to ensure the independence and neutrality of Korea– Kobe Chronicle.

The police arrested two suspicious characters from Yang Wha Do but the people in that village thought they were innocent of any crime and sent a petition to the Police Department praying for their release. The two men had a trial and were convicted of highway robbery. The villagers now congratulate the authorities on the apprehension of these men.

The US Marines nowin the Legation challenge all Seoul to a game of base ball on Saturday afternoon in Hun Yen An. Everybody is requested to be present.

The Russian soldiers will have rifle practice at Hong Che Won, beyond the Peking Pass in a day or two.

After the order from the Police Department to destroy pictures and images of differnt evil spirits, the police carried it out creditably. But one or two Police Officers became too zealous and attempted to destroy some pictures of ancient Korean statesmen. For which offence several policemen were discharged. The latest trouble is that one police officer burned the picture of Tai Cho, the first King of the present dynasty. Of course the officer did not know it was a portrait of Tai Cho as it was stored in one of the granaries under South Mountain with the images ofother deities. The officer has been arrested and dealt with severely. The police have a hard road to travel.

By special edict the old cavalry has been abolished and a new company of hussars will be organized numbering one hundred men.

The Minister of Education Sin Ki Sun issued a new order to the Governement Schools Tuesday as follows:  (1) The students of the Government schools for languages are forbidden to wear European dress hereafter. But at the time of physical exercise they are allowed to wear the old Korean soldiers costume.  (2) This costume is only permissible at the time of physical exercise in the school compound and is not to be worn outside of the School.  (3)  If any student should go out in the street with European dress on, the teacher second in command and the student will be punished heavily and dismissed from the School. (4) This order will take effect from the day of issuance.

The telegraphic communication between Seoul and Fusan has been re-established since Tuesday.

The Fourth of July:  It is proposed by the loyal American citizens of Seoul to Celebrate the National Holiday in an appropriate manner. In order to bring the subject before the attention of all interested a mass meeting is hereby called for Tomorrow, Friday, from four to five PM in the rooms of the Seoul Union. All Americans are expected to be present, ladies as well as gentlemen. Don’t fail to be there. (original text was in bold print and in typeset three times larger than the one used for the regular news–tom)

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The Independet: June 9, 1896

16th May 2012


Continuing the weekly project of retyping Korea’s first English-language newspaper, this week’s issue is Vol.1, No. 28 from Tuesday, June 9, 1896. In this issue: The insurgents once again  building their forces. The Minister of Education tries to abolish the idea of resting on Sundays and the Editor of the Indepedent wants to overhaul how the government recognizes services rendered. <<Reminder:  All opinions expressed in the newspaper are the views of the editors of The Independent. They do not reflect the opinions of this website and are reproduced here for the sole purpose of providing historical context. >>


The time has come when the Korean Government might well consider the subject of providing some way of recognizing the services of her own officials or of foreigners. It has been customary for the Government to send from time to time presents of fruit or meat or fans or the like to various foreign or native employees and to others.  Necessarily this system must give way to one more feasible and less expensive. It often happens that a Korean or a foreigner carries through some piece of work for the Government which it would be well for the Government to recognize not by a gift of money or of rolls of silk but by means of something that is durable and which without suggesting payment will show the appreciation of his services and be a lasting reminder of things accomplished and the commendation which followed.

In the past such service has often been recognized by giving to the person some rank or office for which perhaps he was not fitted and which was quite out of proportion to the service rendered. If a man gets paid for his work regularly he needs no more pay but at the same time he deserves an expression of appreciation for the services, wholely outside the question of money.

To meet this demand we find that in most countries the government has some system of decorations which it comparatively inexpensive and yet covers the ground perfectly. We believe the time has come for some such system to be adopted here.  If Korean finances are to be put on a sound basis the revenue must be levied more and more in hard money and less and less in produce. The government cannot forever be the middle-man for the distribution of the country’s produce.  It is a relic of the times when barter was the only form of trade.  As this change comes the government will have less fans, screens, silk, pheasants, fish, persimmons and chestnuts to handle and more round coins with a hole through them. Consequently the giving of presents will come to an end and services will have to become recognized in some other way.

Of course the thing can be overdone and for a time the natives may tumble over each other in their efforts to get a decoration but when they find that they have got to do something before the decoration is forthcoming their zeal will cool.  There may be some grumbling too when unctuous chusas find that their exhausting services are to be recognized only by a silver badge and a silk ribbon over and above their salaries but it may be a good lesson for them to learn that there is a limit even to the emoluments of a chusa and that the government has a right to get its work done in the cheapest market.  The idea that a government official should get two or three times as much pay for a certain service as he would get outside is a bad policy and harmful to public morals. In well regulated countries there is o purely financial inducement for a successful lawyer, doctor, architect, merchant or civil engineer to leave his position to accept a government position.  He ordinarily wlll lose money by it, but in the East generally the pot of gold is a government position. This should not be and the sooner the giving of costly presents and of fat offices in recognition of services is done away the sooner the public mind will attain a healthier tone.  Let the system of decorations be adopted and put in charge of a competent commission and let the decorations be given judiciously and only in thoroughly deserving cases.

Brief Notices

Th insurgents in Ri Chun are getting reinforcements from the neighboring districts and now they are numbering 8000.  They set fire to the Government buildings in the Magistracy and are looting the whole district.  Capts. Sin Wo Kiun and Kwon Sup Chin with two companies of the Seoul troops have left for the scene.

Rev. Alex Kenmore has gone to Pyeng Yang for a visit.

Mr. Muhlensteth has gone to Japan for a fortnight’s visit. 

The Methodist Mission of Seoul has completed the bookstore in Chong No and opened it formally yesterday afternoon under the mos auspicious circumstances.  There were a large number of friends of the Missionat the new store to offer their good wishes and congratulations.

Mr. H.I. Muhlensteth has been employed by the Communications Bureau as an Instructor and Manager of the Government Telegraph Office.  His service will begin on the 1st of July.

The Commen Court of Seoul will begin to receive the civil cases of law suits from Monday. This is good news for the people.

A littel female child of Kim Sun Heung while playing near the pond outside the South gate fell into the water. Policeman Cho Kyeng Sun jumped in after her and rescued the child from drowning.

Kobe Chronicle states taht since it has been found impossible to permit  the firm of Armstrong, Mitchell & Co. to build large docks in Japan, an order has been entrusted to the two directors now in Japan for two ironclads and two cruisers.

The same journal also states under the caption of “The Russo-Japanese Alliance in Korea” that the scheme for cooperation in Korea in nearly agreed upon by both parties and the new policy is expected to come into force after Mr. Komura has discussed the situation with the Government.

Prince Pak Yong Hyo has left Tokyo for Kobe.  He intends to seclude himself in the country near Kyoto.

It is reported that the Minister of Education has broken out in a new place. He told the officials, it appears that Sunday was no use and was not to be observed in his Department. The said officials thought otherwise and with great good sense declined to put in an appearanceon the day of rest. Go to it, Mr. Minister. We vividly remember the story of the goat who was allowed an abundant length of rope.

The Governor of Ham Heung reports that the murderers of the Mayor of Ham Heung and two Chusas were caught by the police and placed in jail for trial, but the criminals escaped from jail.  We think the Governor is responsible for their escape and ought to be examined sharply as to its true cause.

The Governor of Kang Ju reports that MajorPaik Nak Wan captured the Chief of insurgents in that district and immediately shot him.

The people in Ri Chun district made complaints to the Department of Justice that there were two murder cases in the district, two months ago, but the Magistrate has not yet held and inquest hence the corpses have not been buried. The Magistrate is reported to stay in his an bang (the interior room of a house. These days, the term anbang is used to describe the master bedroom–tom) and let these poor bodies decay. We hope the Home Department will make the Magistrate wake up and attend to the duties for which he is paid. 

There was a fire on one of the Royal graves outside the West Gate, and the Keepers and servants of the unfortunate Royal grave were arrested for the negligence.

The War Department has taken steps to establish military barracks in Tong Yung, Tai Ku, Kang Wha, Kong Ju, Hai Ju, Puk Chung, ChunChon and Kang Ke districts. The total number of men will be 2300 including the officers, and the total amount of expense will be $114,085.20

We congratulate Rev. and Mrs. Pell for the new arrival of their heir. We extend the same to Rev. and Mrs. Junkin of Kun San.

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The Independent, June 6th, 1896

9th May 2012

Continuing the weekly project of retyping Korea’s first English-language newspaper, this week’s issue is Vol.1, No. 27 from Saturday, June 6, 1896. In this issue: The war between the Independent (progressives) and the Minister of Educuation (conservatives) begins in earnest! Also, a mudang predicts disasterous years ahead for Korea that only she can stop and stone-throwing children cause property damage! <<Reminder:  All opinions expressed in the newspaper are the views of the editors of The Independent. They do not reflect the opinions of this website and are reproduced here for the sole purpose of providing historical context>>



The Minister of Education, Sin Ki Sun, has memorialized the Throne to the effect that the adoption of foreign clothes by the soldiers, policemen and Government students and the cutting of the hair is the first step toward making them barbarians; that the use of the unmun (hangul) and the adoption of the western calendar is the first step toward throwing off the yoke of China, that the new regulations for the Cabinet, giving them freedom to discuss public matters, deprives His Majesty of some of his power and encourages the freedom and liberty of the people. These were things contemplated by the former traitorous Cabinet.  He has been appointed Minister of Education but he cannot perform the duties of the office so long as the students have their hair cut and wear foreign clothes. The use of the unmun is the act of a beast and is like going into the fire with powder, and is the beginning of the destruction of the government and the venerable Chinese classics. He therefore hopes His Majesty will dismiss him from the Cabinet.

We are sincerely glad the Minister has thus delivered his opinion. Nothing could have been better for the country; for, as the mouth-piece of the conservative party, he has put hinself and his following into such an extreme situation that they must be discredited before the Korean Government and people. In this memorial he completely disarms himself and his party. The “yoke of China” forsooth!  It is refreshing; the best joke of the season. Let someone tell the venerable Minister that Yuan no longer brow-beats the Korean ministery and court, that China herself is tottering to her fall, that the boasted Chinese classics which  have striven for three thousand years to elevate Korea have only plunged her deeper and deeper into the mire. Let someone tell him that Korea can no more go back to ten years ago than he can go back to his swaddling clothes. He must have been asleep these last two years not to see the impossibility of his proposition. It will be a glad day for Korea when the generation which hob-a-nobbed with the sometime Chinese “resident” and his fellows is dead and gone. He thinks that discussion of public questions by the Cabinet infringes upon the Royal pregogative, and wants to go back to the time when the King, hedged about and kept in ignorance of the actual state of things, was at the mercy of anyone who could by hook or crook gain his ear. In other words a return to an utterly corrupt and corrupting form of Government.  He wants, again, to make the provinces the prey on which officials of the capital shall fatten. He wants to make the government, again, a field for personal exploitation, for indirection and intrigue. This is what his memorial means and what everyone knows it means. It should call down upon itself the scorn and ridicule of the world for its utter lack of knowledge of the actual state of things today and the needs of the country.  We sincerely hope his request will be granted and that he will retire to some quiet place and watch the evolution of his country which he has vainly tried to obstruct.

Brief Notice

Lieut. Yu Sung Won reports that he has dispersed 600 insurgents in Jin Chon districts.

Capt. Kim Hong Kwon reports that the insurgents in Chun Chon surrendered themselves to him and promised to go back to their homes in peace and begged for mercy. This having been granted a large number of the insurgents have disbanded.

The supreme court of Seoul has begun to receive the civil cases of law suits, but the common Seoul court still rejects them. We hope the latter will follow the example of the former.

The Governor of Tong Nai reports the Province of Tong Nai has no force to resist the insurgents that may come in there any day from the neighboring districts so he has established a company of forty soldiers for emergencies.

A sorceress named Han, who pretends to reprent the Great Spirit of Tai Kak Mountain in Kok San, has established herself in Mo-Hwa-Kwon. She claimed that this great Spirit told her Korea will have nine years’ drought and eight years’ war, but if the Government should pay her $6000, she will intercede with the Spirit to prevent the coming evils. The police arrested her a few days ago and she is now in jail awaiting trial.

Three hundred soldiers used to form a company of pioneers, but lately the company has been abolished and the man are now distributed among the infantry regiments.

A Policeman made disturbance without cause in Bong A-Dari outside the little West gate while he was on duty. He was promptly discharged.

Col. Yi Kyem Chai reports that Lieut. Wo Nam Kiu had an engagement with the insurgents on the 15th of May.  The latter lost twelve and two were taken prisoner.  The Colonel further reports that Capt. Yi Eui Sup captured the Chief of the insurgents Kwon Chong Ok in An Dong.  During the engagement the insurgents lost eighty and fourteen were taken prisoner. The Governement troops did not sustain any injury.  After the crushing defeat in Ye Chon and An Dong the insurgents in Kyeng Ju and neighboring districts dispersed immediately.

Magistrate of Chi Pyeng reports that a company of Seoul soldiers routed the insurgents in Che Chon, but they reunited in Ye Ju and now they number eight thousand.  The chief of this band is Myung Il Ho who is a man of some ability and influence in these places, hence he compels the law-abiding citizens to join his gang and so far he has had great success.

Some urchins and toughs of Seoul often congregate on the top of the city gates or walls and from there they throw stones down upon the houses and people below. Lately quite a number of houses under the walls have sustained damage by these missiles. It is a matter the Police ought to look after.

The mudangs of Seoul and the vicinity have been pretty well suppressed lately, and we congratulate the authorities on the faithful manner in which the law has been enforced.  Now, we suggest that the blind fortune-tellers and ‘blind devil chasers’ have a dose of the same medicine. They are just as bad, as if not worse, than Mudangs, and as a rule they play a larger game of deception among the poor people.

Col Nienstead of the Army is taking steps to organize a thorough system of business methods in the Pay Department, and he looks after the properties in general that belong to the War Office. A day or so ago one of the Independent staff had the pleasure of accompanying the inquisitive Colonel in his inspection tour among the sentries in front of the Russian Legation and other points in Chong Dong. The Colonel’s smile disappeared from his face when he found the guards didnot carry proper cartridges for their guns. They carry Remmington rifles but some of the cartridges they had were for Mauser rifles. That was not all, when he found another sentry standing there who did not have any cartridges at all, the Colonel muttered something under his breath that sounded like irun, chemi.

We are glad to learn that Pai ChaiSchool is making steady growth. The daily attendence of the students is now over one hundred. They all seem to be very much interested in the weekly lecture which Dr. Jaisohn delivers ever Thursday in the school.

Captain Sarnow, commander of the German Cruiser Arcona and two officers arrived in Seoul Thursday.

To the Editor of the Independent:  Sir– We are common citizens of the commonwealth and probably haveno business to say anything  concerning the affairs of state orcriticise the opinions of the Cabinet officers, but we consider the Independent to be the friend of the country at large; hence we venture to say a fwe words in regard to the memorial that has been sent to His Majesty, our gracious Sovereign by the Minister of Education, Sin Ki Sun.  He does not seem to know the present state of things at home and abroad. We think he has been with the “righteous army” or Tong Haks or “looters” so long that he has absorbed their ideas.  He wants Chinese classics instead of our own unmun, and he desires to use the Chinese calendar in place of the Gregorian. It is true that the Gregorian calendar is not our own, but it isused by all civilized countries of the world and each country can claim it herwon when it is printed in the language of the country. The Chinese calendar is written in Chinese and there is a great significance in the use of it. It is the custom in China that all dependent countries or tributaries must use the calendar which is given to a vassl King by the Emperor of China.  One of the conditions of the treaty between Korea and China 335 years ago was that Korea must send an ambassador to Peking every year to get the calendar from the Chinese court. It was considered a mark of  vassalage. By the help of God we threw off the shameful name of Chinese dependency and our Sovereign has become the equal of any Emperor or King of te world. At this time every patriotic citizen of our country ought to lend a hand in forming a progressive and independent Government. But the new Minister of Education memorialized the Throne to the effect that Korea must give up everything that may tend to make her a progressive and independent nation, and take up everything Chinese.  We consider that a man holding such an opinion would not be ofmuch benefit to the present Government. Your truly, Citizens of Chemulpo.

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The Independent, June 4th, 1896

2nd May 2012

Continuing the weekly project of retyping Korea’s first English-language newspaper, this week’s issue is Vol.1, No. 26 from Thursday, June 4, 1896. In this issue: The editor further explores the possible monetary benefits of growing Chinese Grass, the Minister of Education protests the westernization of  Korea and someone cheats a shoe store out of seven pairs of shoes!  <<Reminder:  All opinions expressed in the newspaper are the views of the editors of The Independent. They do not reflect the opinions of this website and are reproduced here for the sole purpose of providing historical context>> 



We mentioned in a late issue of this paper the advantages that would accrue from the cultivation in Korea of the fibre producing plant called by the Malays ramie but which is ordinarily known to the west as Chinese grass-cloth.  We must crave the pardon of our readers for the mistake we made in calling it the same as the Korean mo-si.  There are two kinds of cloth in Korea which resemble each other very much; one is mo-si and the other is pye.  The former is flax or hemp and the latter is the ramie or grass cloth. The former which is the same as our linen is higher in price than the latterbeing finer and whiter asmade up here. The pye is coarser and a darker color and is used exclusively in making mourners’ clothes.  It is evident thereforethat large quantities of it are grown in Korea now everyone wears mourning forthe Queen.  Al the light brown hats and coats we see are of this same grass cloth. It is obtained from the bark of a plant that grows luxuriantly in poor soil attaining a height of five or six feet and, the Koreans say, higher. It is stronger than the hemp and has a much finer luster but the Koreans cannot make it look as well as the hemp.  We learn now that a gentleman in Shanghai, Mr. Bennertz, has discovered a simple process for the separating of the fibre of this plant and we have seen written statements by expert weavers n England to whom samples of his product were submitted and they are unanimous in their praise of it, considering it better than cotton, having a luster which will render it very acceptable in conjunction with silk, and European manufacturers would be pleased to handle it if the raw material could be provided in large enough quantities.  But we hear that the inventor of the process is taking steps to establish a large manufactory in Shanghai where the raw material can be sent and be made up far cheaper than by sending it to distant England. Here is a splendid opportunity to make use of some of the uncultivated hillsides in Korea.  It does not require a rich soil.  It grows rapidly, two and somtimes three crops being gathered from one field the same year. If there were a few enterprising Korean who would go to work energetically getting farmers all about to grow this plant, guaranteeing them a certain fixed price for the product it would not be long before an impetus would be given to its culture which wuld speedily repay all the time and labor put on it and show a handsome profit for both the farmer and the middle-man.

The English manufactures think the fibre ought to brig easily from 35 to 45 pounds per ton. This means about $400 silver per ton. We believe it would be asimple matter for a farmer to raise a ton of it a year in addition to his regular crops. It requires little care or attention and can be raised on land that today lies fallow.

Brief Notice

After the abolishment of the old horse courier service in the country, the Department of Communications, with a view to establishing a postal system in its place, sent special officials to different districts to ascertain the amount of land belonging to the bureau of courier service. One of these men, Chang Che Yung, who was looking up districts near Seoul, received a bribe from farmers and let them retain land belonging to the Dep’t.  The Independent investigated the charge and found it confirmed.

At the time of a disturbance some months ago a policeman, Kim Eung Kiu, of Chun Chon district, seized an insurgent Kim Chi Yung and turned him over to the captain of the Seoul company who shot the man. The son of the executed man met the policeman on the street a few weeks agoand killed him in revenge for his father. Now the mother of the dead policeman makes complaint to the Governor of Chun Chon asking him to punish the murderer according to the law.

Ha Eung In of Ma Chang Ni outside the East Gate used bad language to a neighbor’s wife  and while drunk threw away a sack of barley belonging to his neighbor. The people in the town had him hand-cuffed and reported the case to the police station. After a few hours he recovered from the influence of hte liquor and felt ashamed of his actions and tried to kill himself by stabbing his throat with a pocket knife, but the wound was not serious. The police made him apologize to the woman and he paid the cost of the barley he had destroyed.

A former judge of the Seoul Court, Yi Do Ik discharged all the employees of the court while he was Judge and put in his servants in their places. Since he left the office, two of his servants have been discharged from the employ of the court. But Judge Yi Do Ik still collects one dollar from each of the two new employees on the ground that these places were intended for his servants, hence they must pay him one dollar as premium for these positions. A legal mind might perpaps reason out such an action being proper but we, not being well versed in the law, cannot see it as anything but a squeeze.

The Minister of Education memorialized the Throne severely criticizing all attempts at foreign innovations such as uniforms of the soldiers, police and the Government students; use of the unmun; adoption of the Gregorian calendar and freedom of debate in the Cabinet. We will deal with it in the next issue.

The Russia Minister and Mrs. Waeber and the French Minister M. du Plancy visitied the Russian and French Schools in Pak Dong Tuesday. One of the students presented Mrs. Waeber with a handsome boquet tied with ribbons representing the French and Russian colors, in the name of the teachers and students. He also delivered a short address in French. The exercises were thoroughly enjoyed by those who were present.

Leiut. CM Knepper and Asst. Engineer ES Kellogg of hte USS Yorktown arrived in Seoul yesterday.

The Daily News gives the following from its Berlin ccorrespondent dated April 9th. The statement from Korea that the German Consul there had joined the protest of his English and American collegues againt the King’s further stay at the Russian Legation is, I learn, completely unfounded. On the contrary, the German representative has been instructed to remain absolutely neutral. The statement, indeed sounded improbable from the beginning for it is contrary to the whole trend of Germany’s Eastern Asiatic policy, namely, not to oppose Russian interests. Shanghai Mercury.

Governor of Tai Ku reports that the insurgents in Eui Heung had been dispersed by the Tai Ku troops, but the insurgents of An Dong, Pung Ki, and Ye Chon district joined together in the last named place and they are committing most outrageous acts.

Pak Seung Pil and Kim Kang Yep of Chemulpo wanted the position of chief of coolies in the port and asked Yi Pyeong Heui, Kim Seung Heun and Song Chong Hun who are supposed to have influence in Seoul.  They made out fradulent letters supposed to have come from HRH Tai Won Kun (the then-current King’s father–tom), Hon. Yi Chai Yun, the Vice-Minister of Agriculture and Mr. Im O Chun, the Magistrate of In Chun, requesting the Governor of In Chun to appoint these men to the positions  they desire. The three culprits reeived $1,400 from Pak and Kim for the consideration of their service in securing these positions. The scheme was known to the Police Department and the three men were arrested and brought to Seoul for trial.

The German Cruiser Arcona arrived at Chemulpo on Monday. The Commander, Captain Sarnow, is expected to visit the German Counsuate in Seoul in a day or two.

Rev. Alex Kenmure returned from Chefoo the day before yesterday.

Yi Heui Kyeng of Pak Dong went to a shoe store in Won Dong a few days ago and bargained for seven pairs of shoes at $9.98. He left the store ordering to send the shoes to his house. This was done and being asked for money, Yi gave him a check for the amount, but the shoe dealer found that the check was forged. Yi was arrested by the police.

Magistrate of Juk San reports that the chief of insurgents Kim Ju Suk commands 2000 men and now they are in the Southern part of Juk San district, where they are getting more recruits and the number is increasing daily. A quick and prompt relief is requested.

Governor of Kong Ju reports that 200  insurgents were looting villages in Kong Ju and Hyo Dok districts, but 30 Kong Ju soldiers defeated them and killed several. These districts are comparitively quiet at the present.

On Sunday last the students of the Government schools in Seoul had drill exercise in Heun Yan An before a large number of Government officials and teachers.  They went through different forms of calisthenics and other drills very creditably; at the end of the exercises they sang patriotic airs and gave three cheers for His Majesty.

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The Independent: June 2nd, 1896

25th April 2012

Continuing the weekly project of retyping Korea’s first English-language newspaper, his week’s issue is Vol.1, No. 25 from Tuesday, June 2, 1896. In this issue: The editor voices his complaints against Japanese actions toward Korea, the courts refuse civil cases until the king returns home and gunshots are heard in the city!  <<Reminder:  All opinions expressed in the newspaper are the views of the editors of The Independent. They do not reflect the opinions of this website and are reproduced here for the sole purpose of providing historical context>>



According to the Kobe Chronicle the English editor of the Yorodzu seems to have taken exception to our statements relative to the justice of Japan’s claims for indemnity for Japanese killed in Korea.  But the Chronicle gauged him rightly.  He proved to much. He claimed that Japan’s motives were purley philanthropic and unselfish in declaring war against China over Korea. Of course no reasonable man could accept this statement for it is quite patent that the Korean question was merely the key that unlocked the kennel of the “dogs of war” and was not the only cause at all. As to Japan’s having given large sums of money to Korea it is true that three million yen have been borrowed but the Korean government secured much of it from the Japanese Bank at an enormous rate of interest.

We advise the Yorodzu not to open the question of the fisheries dispute a few years ago for of all the outrages pepetrated again unoffending people this seems to us the worst in recent years. The Japanese simply wanted the fish and they practically drove Korea to the wall about it. From time immemorial the women of Quelpart have been accustomed to do the fishing, wading in the water, nude. (Quelpart was the name of the Ducth ship that was the first European vessel to spot Jeju Island after going off course on the way to Japan. Subsequently, Jeju Island was called Quelpart for decades by Europeans–tom).  Japanese  boats came in fleets and simply seized the whole industry and the people of Quelpart were left to shift for themselves. We cannot but conclude, all things taken together, that this talk of aiding Korea has not been demonstrated in facts. What the Japanese people want is the trade, the wealth of Korea and having, like the day dreamer in the Arabian Nights, kicked over the tray of wares that was tohave resulted in a princely fortune, they feel like the English editor of the Yorodzu whose consistency is of that quality that in one sentence he says the Japanese Government was horrified at the murder of the Queen and in the next says that her fate was inevitable and deserved. In  other words  he is an epitome of the Japanese people in that though horrified at the crime he was glad it was committed, but finding that he has been the cause of his own downfall, whines about it.  He “does not care whether Japanese subjects were provied with passports or not.”  The indemnity ought to be collected with fire and sword if necessary. That is to jump from the frying pan into the fire for as we have pointed out before, Japan and Korea mean much to each other and though Korea’s government be not as advanced as could be wished the wealth and resources are here which, properly developed, would prove a great benefit to Japan, but so long as Japanese merchants and pawn-brokers are allowed to impose upon Koreans, the door to Korea’s wealth will be shut tighter and tighter against Japan. We admire Japan and rejoice in her prosperity so long as she is fair and honest but we fear that she has so aroused the hatred of Koreans that even should “fire and sword” wrest from her indemnity, the key to her wealth would have been lost.

There is just one thing that we would say and say it loud enough to reach the ears of the most interested and that is that it makes little difference what kind and benevolent wishes and intentions the Japanese government has toward Korea so long as Japanese merchants are allowed to brow-beat Koreans and bully them into purchasing goods or so long as the Japanese residents are busy helping unscrupulous money lenders foreclose mortgages on Korean houses, they will make no progress toward gaining the commercial foothold in Korea that they desire.

Brief Notice

Hon. John Barrett, the US Minister to Siam, left Seoul on Sunday for Japan.

Hon. J. Komura, the Japanese Minister, has gone to Japan for a short visit. He left Seoul on Sunday.

Mr.Min Yung Chun, who was lately pardoned from his banishment has arrived in Seoul and now is in his country hone near Han Kang.

Prince Pak Yung Hyo arrived in Yokohama from San Francisco on May 21st and is now in Tokyo.

Lieut. Meister, BRN left Seoul on Sunday for Japan. He intends to go back to England by the earliest steamer.

We learn from Peking that the Chinese Government intends to make a start in the formation of a new navy with the consequence that Peking is full of agents of shipbuilding firms who are busily engaged in submitting pans and models of eery description of war ship– Pekeing and Tientsin Times.

Urgent reprots coming to the Departments from the Governors and Magistrates require immediate reply, but often these cases are replied to only after some months and a gread deal of inconvenience and trouble to the people in general result. It is hoped that the Department will dispatch al business that requires immediate attention.

HIGM’s Consul, F Krien, Esq., gave a dinner party on Friday night in honor of James Barrett, US Minister Resident and Consul General to Siam. The guests were Hon. John M.R. Sills, Hon. John Barrett, Dr. H.N. Allen, Lieut. R.R. Belknap, US Navy, Dr. Philip Jaisohn.

The Communication Bureau will establish a postal system to Kyeng Sung and Kang Ke districts. The mail carrier will leave Seoul once every day commencing with June 15th.

We have mentioned before the inconvenience caused by the rejection of certain cases in the law courts and we now learn that ‘until the Queen’s funeral takes place and His Majesty returns to the palace such matters will not receive official attention. ‘ Pray, what connection is there between the funeral of the Queen or the King’s return to the palace, and these civil cases? None whatever. The courts should act promptly and vigorously and clear the docket of all these cases that are pending, which block the course of general business.

Much trouble and delay is caused by the failure of officials to rise early enough in the morning to get to their offices by nine o’clock. They should remember that they are servants of the Commonwealth and should show a fair degree of energy and promtness in the discharge of their official duties.

Steps are being taken to establish a fire department in the city. An order has also been issued regarding the contamination of wells in the city.

The money collected by the city court in the shape of fines has been turned over y the Dept of Justice. It is principally in copper coins and is put away by the dispursing clerk in the Law Dept. At the end of the month the Fiance Dept orders the employees of the department to be paid out of this fund. Recently in counting this money it was found that two cents were missing from each package supposed to contain a dollar. Somebody surely must be responsible for this shrinkage. Let him be found.

The Police Department has issued an order to suppress the devil worship in and about the city. So far the police have closed 322 places of Mutangs and the like in Seoul <I just want to point out that the mudangs were/are not devil worshippers….tom>

Last Wednesday there were reports of two gun shots in the Japanese barracks in Ju Dong. The Korean police in that neighborhood went there and investigated the guns and found that a Japanese soldier had shot off the guns to chase away evil spirits. The police told them of the city ordinance against the shooting of guns in the city and the soldier confessed his ignorance of the regulation and apologized for the occurrence.

On Saturday the Minister of War and other officials of the government with a few foreigners went to the front of the palace and saw the calvary drill.

We are glad to learn that the chief of the Government Steamship company Pung Nam Ju did not discharge the employees under him with the view of putting his friends in the places, but in compliance with the orer from the Dept. The Department is taking steps to reduce the unnecessary expenses of all branches of government service and this company is also included in the list of reduction and hence the dismissals of the less important clerks.

The Minister of Education, Shin Ki Sun returned to Seoul yesterday.

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The Independent: May 30th, 1896

21st April 2012

Continuing the weekly project of retyping Korea’s first English-language newspaper, his week’s issue is Vol.1, No. 24 from Saturday, May 30th, 1896. In this issue: Problems arise between soldiers and the police of Seoul, the Magistrates ignore royal edicts and a rivalry starts between the Independent and some Japanese papers



** The May number of our Seoul cotemporary The Repository appeared on Wednesday.  The range of subjects treated in this number is very large, including Korean history, travel, missions, poetry, politics, correspondence, notes and comments. It provides a variety of broad enough to please all its subscribers.  It is a distinctly new departure in jounalism in the East in that it proposes to interest those who have the mission cause at heart and also those who are engaged in business or other pursuits; and to please all parties is probably not as easy as it looks.  We believe that people in the East are willing to read an occasional paper on missionary subjects if it is well written, to the point, fresh and not too long.  It must have something to say that has not been so often as to become stale. It is not so much the saying of something new as the saying of old things in a new way. Absolute originality is a thing unknown in these days. We consider that the Repository has shown a good taste in its Missionary utterances thus far.

***  Our attention has lately been called to a product of Korean soil which we believe will one day take a prominent place in the exports of the country.  We refer to what the Koreans call Mo-si or grass-cloth.  It is supposed to have originated among the Malays who call it ramie. It is a plant of the thistle family but without briers.  The fibre is obtained from the inner layer of bark. For many decades attempts were made in the West to invent a way by which the fibre could be separated without leaving it rough and knotty and at last t has been accomplished by French experts. Clothing has been a universal necessity for some six thousand years or more and will doubtless continue to be and any people does well to foster the production of fibre producing plants.  Korea seems specially suited for the raising of this plant and we hope that when the time comes for the Government to appoint a commission for the purpose of examining into the agricultural status of the country with a view to improvement of wasteland this promising vegetable will not be overlooked.

*** The Official Report on matters connected with the events of Oct. 8th and the Death of Her Majesty, a translation of which was printed by the Repository in its March issue, has been put into the Unmun for distrobution among the officials but there has been such a demand for it outside that it has been found necessary to reprint it.  We canot admit the statement of the Japan Mail that everything was done that could be done to incriminate the Japanese.  It was the facts that did it and not the court. The Gazette is tired of thequestion but we are also tired when we think of the Korean Government paying an indemnity over the dead body of its Queen. This truly fatigues us.

Brief Notice

Kwak ChongWun, of Seoul, owns some rice fields inYong Tam district and last year he gathered 600 bags of rice from them.  The Magistrate seized it immediately. Kwak complained to the Home Department and an order was issued to the magistrate to return the grain to the owner. The Magistrate was highly indignant at Kwak for daring to make a complaint to the Department. He however disgorged 200 ofthe sacks, keeping 400 back. We advise Mr. Kwak to make two more complaints and get the rest of his rice.

We learn from several sources that all edicts and laws have been copied andsent to the different districts throughout the country, but the Magistrates do not proclaim them to the people. Hence the people do not learn the real intentions and wishes of His Majesty and the government. We hope the Home Department  will find some way of informing the people in the country of the actual condition of the government and that the new laws and edicts may reach even the most distant villages.

The police arrested and turned over the the War Office three soldiers who were found gambling outside the South Gate.

Yi Chang Sik of Sa Dong came home on Monday night in a drunken condition.  His wife scolded him for his disorderly conduct and put him to bed. At midnight a policeman passing his house heard a peculiar noise or grunt in the room near the street. The policeman entered the house and made investigation of the matter and found that the drunken man had got up from bed and gone into the room near the street where he had hanged himself from a beam.  The man was soon untied by the policeman and restored to consciousness. The man’s wife was in her room and could not get out as the door was locked outside evidently by her husband lest she might come to his rescue.

On Tuesday evening Policeman Kim Tal Ryong while off duty went to call on a friend outside the little West gate with three other friends. While he was in the house the three other friends were waiting outside. As Kim did not come out for some time there three men looked in at the gate to see what was the matter. All of a sudden a soldier with a crowd of men pitched into the three policeman and beat them unmercifully on the ground that they had looked into a private house. The Police Department reported the case to the War Office and the soldier was promptly discharged. 

The Japan Mail thinks that the Independent does not exercise enough care in choice of its news taken from Japanese papers.  It refers to a secret treaty between Japan and Russia regarding Korea. The fact is we find in the April 24 issue of the Kobe Chronicle and the may 5th issue of the Herald the same statements as taken from Japanese papers. We would print to the fact that none of the Japanese papers contain reliable news from Korea except now and than an item which is better obtained in Tokyo than in Seoul and it is a choice of evisls either way.  (The Independent later prives to be correct when Russia reveals most of the contents on the secret treaty a year later–tom)

From the 5th of June the Communication Bureau will establish a postal system to Hai Ju, Hong Ju, Chun Chon, Ham Heung and Wonsan districts.  The mail carriers will leave Seoul every day.

We reported in a previous issue the case of So Yung Sik, formerly a Chusa in the Home Department, who issued a false order exemting the tax on a Salt manufactory. So has been discharged by the Department and fined $22.40.

The students of the government schools will have a picnic outside the East gate today. They will have some athletic excercises and other sports.

The Seoul court has posted a notice in conspicuous places in the city, regarding criminal law. Itis hoped this will tendto lesson the number of offenders.

Pak Pang Kil of Seoul is a well known character here as a bunco-steerer.  He was in prison forsome months on account of some grave offense, but was released after the edict of general amnesty on February 11th.  Lately he passed himself off as a chusa in the Foreign Office, also he claimed to know every high official in the Government. He claimed to have the power of appointing policemen through his influence with the high officials, buthe must be paid at least eight dollars to secure the appointment. Several men paid him the desired amount hoping to get appointed. He collected $126 from them. The police arrested him yesterday and he is in jail awaiting trial.  (The term bunco, or bunko, steerer is used to refer to a con-artist– tom)

“There is a tradition in Japan, among some of the old residents, that Japan possesses an admirable climate,” remarks ‘Lookers-on’ in the Gazette.  “I have been in Japan some years now, and have never known two years alike. The weather has been as capricious as a Japanese Cabinet and as uncertain as the railway service.”

According to the Yusin Nippo, a telegram has it that the Chinese Government is negotiating another foreing loan– this time for 50,000,000 teals — and that the Emperor has sanctioned it.

The China Gazette says– It is reported on apparently good authority that the entire Russian fleet has been ordered to assemle at Chefoo to be ready to take over Port Arthur as soon as Li Hung Chang has signed certain documents in Russia.

Sunday Morning– Mamma: “Now, Johnny, I want you to tel me where you were yesterday afternoon. Your shoes are in a terrible condition, and your trouse are mud up to the waistband.”    Johnny: “Didn’t you tell me, mamma, that I should not talk about weekday matters on the Sabbath?”– Boston Transcript.

Posted in The Independent: 1896 | Comments Off

The Independent: May 28th, 1896

11th April 2012

Continuing the weekly project of retyping Korea’s first English-language newspaper, his week’s issue is Vol.1, No. 23 from Thursday, May 28th, 1896. In this issue:  The police continue to crackdown on ’sorceresses’, a mob in Paju takes justice into their own hands, the editor discusses his impressions of Siam, and the Waebers throw a party. <<Reminder:  All opinions expressed in the newspaper are the views of the editors of The Independent. They do not reflect the opinions of this website and are reproduced here for the sole purpose of providing historical context>>



To one who watches the papers with care it would seem as if Siam were like the little fish in the Korean fable– between two whales. It may be even more applicable than common in this case for we are informed by scientists that whales’ throats are too small to swallow large objects but that they can comsume great numbers of small ones with ease.  It can scarcely be expected therefore that two whales can make a full meal off one small fish, and the only hope for her is that the two big neighbors will find it inconvenient to both swallow her at the same time. Some such fortunate conclusion seems to have been reached and for the time at least both England and France have agreed to call a halt in the dismemberment of Siam. It is a pleasure to learn from the Hon. John Barrett, Minister Resident and Consul General of the US to Siam, who is now stopping in Seoul, that Siam has not for many a year been in so hopeful a condition as she is in today.  In spite of losses of territory she still holds the whole valley of the Menam River which is the richest part of the whole Indo-Chinese peninsula. Today her territory far exceeds Korea in extent, while in richness there can probably be little comparison.

We generally think of Siam as being ruled by a barbaric sovereign, conservative, ignorant, cruel perhaps.  But if so we are quite mistaken.  The King of Siam is an educated, intelligent man and speaks English fluently. Two of his sons are graduates of Oxford University, England, and his cabinet is composed of large-minded, progressive men who have been in close contact with the world and are thoroughly well informed.  They are to a considerable extent westernized, as we may say, for they have adopted many of the customs of the west especially in the matter of games.  Tennis, billiards, cricket, polo and such sports are engaged in by them freely. Under the lead of such men it would be strange if Siam should not make rapid progress.  We may not thefact that the King of Siam is now the ony independent sovereign in southern Asia east of Afghanistan.  We would like to have the experiment tried as to whether a kingdom in the tropics cannot, if properly led, be as successful in every sense as if tanken in hand by some western power.  Perhaps the negative would be proved, for certainly English rule of India, if we except the policy carried out in regard to opium, has been a splendid success. At the same time it would be interesting to see whether such a thing as enlightened patriotism might not prove a strong factor in national growth.  We ordinarily thnk of patriotism and the tropics as unassimilible things but the fact is wehave had very few chances to witness the results of enlightened patriotism in the tropics. The republic of San Domingo, Liberia and perhaps Cuba of today would indicate that patriotism may thrive between Cancer and Capricorn but they would hardly serve as a basis of comparison between the results of Caucasian suzerainty and purely native or indigenous enterprise. <Suzerainty: A nation that controls another nation in international affairs but allows it domestic sovereignty– I had to look that word up..   tom>

Brief Notice

There can be but one opinion in regard to the entertainment given by the Russian Minister and Mrs Waeber last Tuesday, and that is that it was entirely worthy of the event it was intended to celebrate.  We do not see what more could have been done to lend eclat to the occasion and impress upon all minds the momentousness of the interests involved in the coronation of the Russian Emperor. Such an entertainment is an expression of good-will, of friendship, of peace, and there is not one who does not trust that this will be the predominant feature of the reign of the new Emperor.  The Russian Legation was was gaily decorated with flags of different nations. During the day the Foreign Representatives and others called and officered their congratulations and in the evening a large company gathered to celebrate the event.  Countless Japanese lanterns supplemented the light of a brilliant full moon and the Legation was a blaze of light.  In the assembly America, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, and Russia were all represented. After a pleasant hour spent in conversation and witnessing of fireworks, Mr Waeber escorted Mrs Sill to the refreshment salon follwed by Mr Komura and Mrs Waeber and the other guests.  Mr. Waeber first proposed the health of the Russian Emperor and Empress which was enthusiastically responded to by the company.  The the Korean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr Yi Wan Yong, proposed the same toast which was again drunk with cheers.  Then Mr Waeber proposed the health of His Korean Majesty  which eliceted applause. Mr Sill proposed a toast to the host and hostess which was heartily responded to.  Somewhat after midnight the company dispersed carrying with them the memory of one of the most brilliant entertainments ever given in Korea.

The police of Chemulpo have followed the example of the Seoul police in the matter of sorceresses.  A few days ago a mudang was raising a disturbance in a home at the port and the police promptly stopped it, but the mayor Im O Chun, at the instigation of his concubine, called the policemen and berated them for enforcing the rule.  The policemen have a hard road to travel if they are to be at the beck and nod of officials’ concubines.

It is reported that the Chief of the Mint in Chemulpo, Yi Ho Sang, used $3,000 of Government money in carrying on a pawnbroker’s business in the port and vicinity.  We hope the Finance Dept will make a thorough investigation and if the charge is proved that punishment will be inflicted.

A fire broke out Sunday night in the new barracks in front of the Palace. Twenty-five kun were burned before the fire was gotten under control.  It would be a good investment for the Government to purchase a few fire engines and train some of the police force as firemen.

“You have no heart.”  Pale, but tearless, she stood before him and looked him squarely in the eye. She was poor but proud. Adverse fortune had reduced her wardrobe to calico basics, driven her and her only surviving mother to the top flat of a Wabash Avenue apartment house and hardened the lines about her still beautiful mouth, but it could not dim the lustre of her blue-black eye nor tame the unconquerable spirit that animated every fibre of her lissome form standing erect with unconscious grace and awaiting his answer.  “You have no heart,” she repeated. “No, Miss, ” replied the butcher, “but we’ve got some mighty nice liver; will that do just as well?”

This morning the Nichi Nichi gives the following as the points round which the negotiations between Japan and Russia turn; (1) The return of the King to the Palace. His return to the Palace is desired by the Korean Government, yet he remains in at the Russian Legation. No matter what circumstances may call for his staying outside the palace, the sovereign of an independent country should not abide in a foreign Legation. (2) The disposal of Japanese troops stationed in Korea. When troops or men of war of the two powers are stationed in Korea, as is now the case, not only is the prestige of Korea as an independent Kingdom menaced, but there is danger of complication arising, so that it is necessary to restrict the number of troops in Korea. (3)  The disposla of Japanese telegraph lines in Korea.  As Japan constructed telegraph lines in the interior of Korea, an independent country, it has been necessary for troops to protect the lines, and the pressence of these have provoked attacks by Korean insurgents. For this reason the telegraph lines must be disposed of in one way or another; either they should be disposed of in some way or they must be maintained under certain conditions. It will thus be seen that the subjects of negotiation, adds the Nichi Nichi, are not such matters as require to be permanently agreed on by treaty.  They will be dealt with therefore only in diplomatic notes.

The Magistrate of Po Chun reports that the district militia attacked and routed insurgents in Kim Wha and Kim Sung but the congregated again in Yung Pyung and looted villages in that neighborhood. They number about fifty.

The Communication Bureau has ordered the magistrates of the districts through which telegraph lines pass to report the amount of damage done in their several districts. The government wil begin repairs as soon as the reports are in.

The Governor of Seoul reports that the people of five villages in Pa Ju, numbering some 300, brought seven highwaymen to the magistrate and asked for permission to kill them, whe he did reluctantly for fear of personal injury.  The infuriated mob threw the men into the river.

Leiut. Kim Pyung Wak reports that a policeman Pak Chun Sup wnet in disguise into the stronghold of insurgents in Po Sung district and seized the chief Kim Chang im and his son Kim Suk Heun and successfully brought them out and delivered them to the authorities at Chun Ju where they were shot.

The Governor of Tai Ku reports that the Seoul officers have dispersed the insurgents in Chin Ju district but they are still going about in small bands disturbing the villages. If the soldiers are withdrawn these bands will reunite for further mischief.  The Governor asks the War Office to let the troops remain in Chin Ju for three months more.

We are informed that some disbursing clerks of certain departments lend money as a matter of accommoation to their friends as well as for financial gain.  It is not only dangerous but a criminal practice and should be dealt with severely by the heads of departments.

The new chief of the Government Steamship company in Chemulpo, the Yi Won Sa, named Pang Nam Ju, has been dismissing the old employees of the company without cause and replacing them by his friends who have no knowledge of the shipping business. He said it was by order of the Minister of Agriculture to dismiss the employees who were appointed by the former chief. We do not believe the Minister gave any such order as we know him to be an honest and conscientious offical.

Posted in The Independent: 1896 | Comments Off

The Independent: May 26th, 1896

4th April 2012

Continuing the weekly project of retyping Korea’s first English-language newspaper. This week’s issue is Vol.1, No. 22 from Tuesday, May 26th, 1896. This week: The revolution in the countryside is in full swing, the Royal English School adopts western-style uniforms for their students, the editor muses over why Korean government minister resign on a regular basis, and Miss Doty goes on vacation!   <<Just a reminder. All opinions expressed belong to the long-dead editor of the Independent and do not reflect this website’s opinion>>



Korea is second only to France n the rapidity of change from one ministry to another.  So far as we can see there are no more than two reasons for this.  The first is fear of personal danger and the second disinclination to undergo the fatigue and the responsibility of the position.  As to the first reason we cannot blame the Korean for it.  Suppose for an instant that by some, at present unforesen, cinrcumstance the opposing party should again hold a position relative to the government similar to the one they held previous to the 11th of February. <Prior to Feb. 11 refers to the date until which King Gojong was held captive in the palace and the traitorous ministers issued false edicts supposedly signed by His Majesty–tom> It would mean, to a greater or less extent, that the men now accepting important positions under the government are by so doing simply making a bid for imprisonment, decapitation perhaps; at least banishment.  It is very much to the point then to ask whether the sweets of office are sweet enough to be worth the risk.  When we remember what the former Government did to a large number of people who were or were not connected with the disturbance of Nov. 28th we can set it down as sure that in case they were in the ascendent there would be little check to revengeful impulseson the part of men in power. <The distrubance referred to here are the false edicts and laws passed while the king was prisoner including the declaration that the murdered Queen was actually a commoner and the infamous “Top-Knot” edict.  The rapidity of the declarations and new laws touched off the rebellions throughout the country–tom> In that case some members of the present cabinet would again be driven to the wall and have to seek asylum as best they could.  So much for the undesirability of office from the standpoint of personal danger. It is a real, a personal, a tangible and fairly convincing arguement.

As to the other reason for the rapid changes, it is quite true that there is not the energy, the push, the vigor manifested by Korean officials that we would like to see.  During the last few months, some splendid results, have been achieved but they were the work of comparatively a few menand are individual achievements in a sense.  What we would like to see is a cabinet every member of whic would for a time forget his personal inclinations and throw itself as one man into the work of clearing up the present difficulties, formulating a definite plan of action and pushing towards its accomplishment.  A virorous policy would lessen the factor of personal danger to a marked degree.  To act as if danger were momentarily impending seems to us to be courting danger.  It is all well enough for people to say they ought to have patriotism enough to be willing to undergo fatigue and personal discomfort but we may as well admit that, that kind of patriotism is “few and far between” even in the most enlightened lands.

Brief Notice

Col. Kyu Yung Cho reports to the War Office that a company of Seoul soldiers went ot Chuk San upon hearing that insurgents were at work there.  They found that the insurgents had dispersed after burning the town.  The same Officer reports that a squad of soldiers encountered a band of rebels in Chung In and a sharp encounter ensued.  The latter lost several men and some fo the villagers being mixed in with them were also killed.  The soldiers chased them to Whang Kan killing twenty-two more.

The people of six districts in Kyung Sung district sent a petition to the War Office asking for a military post in that province.  They are adjacent either to Russia or China and desire to have troops there to check marauding expeditions from the other side of the border.

A drunken policeman was promptly discharged the other day.  It is a good example for the other Departments to follow.

Capt. Kim Myung Whan  has been fighting the rebels in the eastern provinces for some months and has had some brilliant success.  The people praise him highly for the correct behavior of his soldiers toward them.  It is rumored that the War Office intends to recall him but the people of Kang Won province fear that as soon as he is recalled the insurgents will rise again.

Kim Kong No of Sung In in Kyung Song province ran away from his home five years ago leaving a widowed mother and young wife behind.  For four years the two women have been travelling all over the country in search of the lost one and are now stopping in Kong Ju on account of fatique and exhaustion.

The police arrested and gave fifty blows to Chung Pak San who under the influence of liquor molested school children in Kyo Dong by throwing stones at them and using bad language.

By special edict Min Yong Chung and Mn Heung Sik have been released from their banishment in Kang Wha.  Both were banished for ten years last February.

Police Oficer Pak Ki Yang was killed while on duty in Na Ju during the disturbance by the insurgents.  His remains were brought to Seoul a few days ago and buried outside the South Gate.  A squad of policemen went to the grave yesterday and offered sacrifice and one of the Police Officers deleivered a eulogy on the dead fellow.

It is reported that Prince Pak Yung Hio who has been exiled for some time in America started from San Francisco for Yokohama on May 4th. <Pak, backed by the Japanese Minster to Korea, was the leader of the Gapsin Coup of 1884.  It was a three-day long coup that attempted to overthrow the government to implement pro-Japanese reforms.  Queen Min successfully blocked the movement by secretly enlisting help from the Chinese  garrison stationed in Seoul.  During the battle, the Japanese Legation was burned to the ground and the Japanese Minister escorted and exiled from Korea. Although the coup was stopped, Korea was pressured by Japan to pay 110,000 Yen as an apology–tom>

Hon. John Barret, Minister Resident and Consul General of the US to Siam is visting the various countries in the East.  He left Bangkok May 1st and, after visting Hong Kong, Shanghai and Chefoo, arrived in Seoul the day before yesterday.  He is a guest at the US Legation.  He is a graduate of Dartmouth College in the class of ‘89. He is probably one of the youngest Resident Ministers in the world.  He has made some interesting statements about Siam which we shall insert in our next issue.

Im Kong Ni of Ma Po has ben deceiving the Nai In, or court waiting maids, and other women of wealth and influence by his supposed power with evil spirits and he seized several acres of land belonging to private individuals for the purpose of erecting a temple for the spirit.  The people in Ma Po make complaint.

Choi Sung Yul of Kang Wha lost three rolls of cotton in his boarding place in Chon Dong a few days ago, and reported the case to the Police Dep’t.  A police detective caught the thief on Chong No and recovered the lost goods and is waiting for the owner.

The police stationed outside the South gate noticed on Saturday night a suspicious looking man carryng a load of old clothes on his back.  He was sharply examined and it was found that the goods had been stolen from the house of O Nan Ho of Sang Dong.  The thief is now in jail and the goods have been returned to the owner.

A little straw hut near Mo Wha Kwan contained a dead body whic was entirely unclothed, and there was no food in the hut.  The man had evidently died of fever, or Im Pyeng.  Such cases require careful treatment in the hospital, and we hope the Government will provide a hospital for contagious diseases.

Dr. C.F. Reed of Shanghai arrived in Seoul Saturday.  He intends to settle here to start mission work under the auspices of the Methodist Mission South of America.

Miss Wambold of California arrived from Japan to relieve Miss Doty in the girls school of the Presbyterian Mission.  Miss Doty intends to go home for a vacation.

The Russian Minister and Mrs. Waeber give a garden party this evening in honor of their Imperial Majesties the Czar and Czarina.

The tax on Korean footwear, such as mitori and straw sandals has been abolished since July 1894, but lately the officials have been trying to colect it again and the dealers make a great deal of complaint.

Last Sunday was the birthday of Her Majesty Queen Victoria.  The Diplomatic and Consuar Representatives and other joined in offering congratulations and good wishes.

The students of the Royal English School had their new uniforms on yesterday and drilled before His Majesty in the afternoon.  They looked really neat and orderly and they drilled remarkably well. His Majesty was very much pleased with them and thanked Professors Hutchinson and Halifax for their creditable instructions.  The English Sergeant who has been drilling these boys received a handsome gold watch from His Majesty for his service.  There were a number of spectators from different Legations and all seemed pleased with the boys.  We hope this recognition from His Majesty and praises from the others will encourage the students in adopting more progressive ideas.

Latest Telegrams

London May 8.  Several of the United States have nominated Mr.McKinley as Republican candidate for the presidency and there seems a strong likelihood of his being elected.

May 9.  The Board of Directors of the Chartered Company have resolved to defer the acceptance of the resignations of Mssrs. Cecil Rhodes and Beit; but this is only temporarily approved of by certain directors who consider their resignation inevitable and who otherwise would resign themselves.

May 13.  The Chinese Government yielding to pressure on the part of Russia has granted to Russia a concession on the foreshore of Chefoo, in which part of foreshore British subjects have vested interests.  The British Government is inquiring into the matter.

May 14.  Cholera prevails to an alarming extent in Alexandria

Posted in The Independent: 1896 | Comments Off